The term coitus is derived from the Latin word coitio or coire, meaning "a coming together or joining together" or "to go together", and it describes a variety of sexual activities under ancient Latin names, but usually refers exclusively to penile—vaginal penetration. Lerner and Laurence Steinberg state that researchers also "rarely disclose how they define sex or even whether they resolved potential discrepancies in definitions of sex". A study by the Kinsey Institute examined the definition of sex based on a random sample of college students from 29 U. Another study by the Kinsey Institute sampled people, ranging in ages 18—
Both positive and negative emotions were significantly related to risk attitudes and behavior in regression analyses. The affective contexts of sexual experiences may be important predictors of risk in adolescence.
Additionally, youth account for nearly half of the Much research has examined why teens — despite knowing the negative outcomes — continue to put themselves at risk. The Social Personal Framework for HIV-Risk Behavior 5 emphasizes the relationship between non-cognitive factors and individual and social factors as determinants of risk-taking.
With regard to parents and peers, having greater positive support and involvement from both sources has been found to be associated with increased condom use among teens 6.
Other positive parenting practices, such as increased monitoring, more parent-teen communication, and less permissiveness are linked to less sexual risk-taking among teens 7 and perceived peer norms for safer sex behaviors are linked to more consistent condom use and fewer partners 8.
On the other hand, parent and peer approval of youth sexual behavior predicts greater risk, i. Mental health is also a salient factor for adolescent sexual risk.
Studies have documented that adolescents experiencing emotional and behavioral symptoms have greater rates of sexual risk behaviors than their peers.
In addition to research showing links between behavior problems and adolescent sexual risk 10 - 12community studies also demonstrate that adolescents with emotional distress exhibit more HIV-related risk than their less distressed peers 13 Emotions represent an understudied, but likely influential, personal attribute variable from the Social Personal Framework that influences adolescent risk taking.
Furthermore, affect regulation in middle childhood has been shown to predict number of sexual partners in adolescence These studies support the notion that experiencing strong emotions and difficulty regulating them may contribute to poor sexual decision-making.
Affect regulation interventions to improve health in at-risk populations, such as those with emotional or behavioral problems, are promising prevention strategies 17 Teens with emotional and behavioral problems are particularly at-risk for engaging in sexual activity 1920 and negative sexual outcomes, such as STIs 20 This may be due to poor affect regulation, which is common to these problems.
However, more needs to be known about the impact of emotions on the sexual risk behavior and attitudes of adolescents with mental health issues. Little research examining emotional factors influencing sex exists for adolescents.
A meta-analytic review of primarily adult studies found little evidence that negative affect i. Studies with adolescents and young adults have repeatedly indicated associations between negative affect and risky sexual behavior 1314212425though these studies have also assessed ongoing emotional functioning e.
Thus, these studies may not inform about the temporal relationships of affect and risk. Researchers studying temporal associations in the relationship between emotions and sexual activity have used daily diary approaches to more proximally examine emotions around the time of sex, anticipating relationships with both positive and negative emotions.
Tanner and colleagues 26however, found no statistical differences in positive or negative mood on the days around first sexual intercourse for teenage females.
However, it has been noted that despite the advantages of daily diary methods, when data are collected at the level of a given day, the within-day order of sexual activity and mood cannot be established; multiple time points within a day are needed to determine temporal relationships and this can sometimes be burdensome to participants Using momentary sampling with handheld computers in a mixed-gender sample, Shrier and colleagues 28 were able to conduct such a study assessing multiple time points within each day and found that adolescents experienced increases in positive and decreases in negative affect before sex, and that there was no significant difference in affect trajectories by gender.
Limited information exists regarding the associations between specific emotions preceding sex and sexual risk. First, using ten affect descriptors, we aimed to identify the emotional context preceding sex as reported by adolescents at risk due to emotional or behavioral problems, recruited from therapeutic schools for students with such difficulties.
Second, we aimed to examine the factor structure of this measure of emotions preceding sex to determine whether a one-factor or two-factor solution provided the best fit to the data. Third, we aimed to examine demographic factors influencing emotions preceding sex.
We hypothesized that two factors, positive emotions and negative emotions, would emerge from the data, consistent with conceptualizations of affect presented in the sexual risk literature 222728and that adolescents would endorse primarily positive affect preceding sexual activity.
We also hypothesized that gender would be unrelated to emotions preceding sex 28but made no other hypotheses related to demographics due to little previous literature. Because of the lack of literature regarding emotions immediately preceding sex, we also conducted exploratory analyses examining the relationships of adolescent emotional context before sex with condom use at last sex, condom use over the last six months, intentions to have sex in the next six months, and self-efficacy for engaging in behaviors that would prevent HIV transmission.
In this way, we hoped to better understand the relationships between emotions immediately prior to sex and sexual safety and attitudes, as this may inform intervention strategies for youth, particularly those with emotional or behavioral difficulties.Teenagers in the United States: Sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, — National Survey of Family Growth.
National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 23(31). The present study examined the link between the emotional context of sexual situations and sexual risk, specifically by examining the relationship of teens’ recall of their affective states prior to sex with their sexual risk behaviors and attitudes.
Adolescents (ages ) attending therapeutic.
Adolescent sexuality is a stage of human development in which adolescents experience and explore sexual feelings. Interest in sexuality intensifies during the onset of puberty, and sexuality is often a vital aspect of teenagers' lives.
In humans, sexual interest may be expressed in a number of ways, such as flirting, kissing, masturbation, or having sex with a partner. Parental and societal concerns regarding premature sexual activity include unplanned pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), sexual abuse, and potential emotional consequences of sexual behaviors.
sexual orientation, religion, and culture. Adolescent sexuality has changed over the past 50 years, with adolescents now reaching. Little is known about the influences of peers on the sexual activity of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Better understanding of these issues could lead to more effective interventions promoting sexual and reproductive health.
sexual activity status and other risk factors (U.S. Preventive Services Task Force). Given the trends regarding adolescent sexual behaviors, it is important to address this issue.
According to the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, percent of high school.