Bibliography Definition A research problem is the main organizing principle guiding the analysis of your paper. The problem under investigation offers us an occasion for writing and a focus that governs what we want to say. It represents the core subject matter of scholarly communication, and the means by which we arrive at other topics of conversations and the discovery of new knowledge and understanding. Sage, ; Chapter 1:
Accurate financial records are necessary to keep track of financial warning signals such as inordinately high expenses, high levels of debt or a poor record of collecting bills.
Public companies often have specific procedures for gathering, verifying and reporting financial information. Recent corporate scandals have placed greater scrutiny on the managers and corporate officers of publicly held firms.
Privately held firms are not held to the same standard but often adhere to strict guidelines in order to increase the value of the firm and viability in case Current business research paper sale.
Financial Statement Analysis Overview Financial statements are reports that show the financial position of a company.
Recordkeeping is important in order to understand a company's value and to comply with various regulations and tax requirements. Accurate records allow companies to account for how money was spent and handled, what assets are owned and what debts are owed.
Businesses differ in how they are valued depending on whether they are public or private firms. Information about public companies is available, especially to shareholders, while it is difficult to get audited and financially sound information about the financial workings of a private company Antia, Private companies don't provide information on their cash flow and have greater opportunities to engage in financial benefits not available to public companies, such as: Above-market salaries for family members.
Mixing of personal and business funds. Exaggeration of business expenses to reduce taxes.
Other concerns regarding a business' value can depend on what a buyer sees in the business. If the business represents a strategic purchase, a higher price might be garnered even for an over-valued private business.
If a buyer is a minority buyer, they may want to pay less due to the minimal amount of control they can exert on the business Antia, para. Types of Financial Statements Basic financial statements include the balance sheet, the income statement, cash flow statement and notes to account.
There are different types of reports because different types of information are needed to effectively manage a company and plan for the future. Sometimes companies use financial reporting information internally, and in some cases they are required to release this information externally.
Tracy called cash the "lubricant" of business. Without cash it is difficult for a business to function and it increases the likelihood that a business may fail.
But, Tracy warned that cash flows only show part of the picture and give no information about the business' profit or financial condition. Since cash flows only show part of the picture, other types of financial reports are needed.
The most common financial reports are the balance sheet and the income statement. The balance sheet also called the statement of financial position provides information about the financial condition of a company.
The income statement also called the earnings or profit and loss statement shows the profitability of the business. Balance Sheets The general categories on balance sheets are assets and liabilities.
A publicly traded firm also includes shareholder equity.
A typical balance sheet shows assets a company owns. Assets include cash, accounts receivable, inventory and any prepaid expenses. Balance sheets also record property the company owns and any depreciation on assets.
The balance sheet is a two-sided report because it records assets on one side and liabilities on the other. Liabilities include accounts payable and accrued expenses, income tax owed, loans and stockholders' equity. Stockholders' or shareholders' equity is any claim that owners of company stock have against the assets that a company has.
Stockholders' or shareholders' equity is also called net worth. Income Statements Income statements show the profitability of a business. The income statement is for a period of one year and shows the total sales revenue for the year.
Subtracted from sales revenue is the cost of goods sold or the expenses a company incurs in producing finished goods to sell.
Also deducted from the revenue are expenses for operating costs and depreciation.
If a company is publicly owned, its income statement must also report earnings per share Tracy, Earnings per share is a measure of company profitability Godin, Course Breakdowns based on review of course materials from: SUNY Albany, University of Pennsylvania, MIT, Lehigh University, University of Notre Dame, University of Michigan, Indiana University, University of Texas, Virginia Tech, University of .
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