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It shifted to a new phase. The long official story line of the civil rights movement runs from Montgomery to Memphis, from the bus boycott that introduced Dr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. The shock, grief, and rage that ensued, in the conventional account, become the veritable end of the movement. All that followed is treated as incidental to, if not decline or detour from, the glory days of struggle.
But that endpoint obscures far more than it illuminates, a new generation of scholarship has revealed. It is now clear that A. King was more prescient than the pundits from whom first-wave historians took their cue.
What journalists took as the end of the movement marked, instead, a shift to a new phase in which the reforms the movement won and the ongoing obstacles it confronted created a new and more complex terrain of struggle.
The civil rights legislation of the mids set the stage for the real work of equality in jobs, education, politics, and the military.
The Civil Rights Act of did not simply open public accommodations, such as lunch counters and bus stations. It made possible the first large-scale progress in breaking down job segregationa primary goal of civil rights activists from at least the s onward.
While some fought discrimination using the Civil Rights Act, other black workers organized to improve conditions in their existing jobs, as the Memphis sanitation strike inspired a vast wave of union organizing. Led by black municipal and hospital workers, the public sector became the best organized part of the U.
There, African American men and women, especially, achieved their greatest income and promotion gains. In the area of school segregation, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act and subsequent court victories enabled other activists to make the first significant headway in breaking down since the Supreme Court had issued its Brown v.
Board of Education decision over a decade before. Still others, using the Voting Rights Act ofopened electoral politics to African American voters and candidates as never before. In the South, the impact was stunning, as newly enfranchised black voters partnered with liberal and moderate whites to elect more African Americans than the region had seen since Reconstruction.
In the cities of the North and West, black communities gained representation as never before. Nationally, forty-three black candidates won election as mayor ina number that quintupled over the next fifteen years.
Shirley Chisholm As African Americans gained new access to white-dominated institutions, the freedom struggle moved inside from the streets. On college campuses, black students fought for and won the creation of Afro-American Studies programs and financial aid policies that would allow children of lower-income families to get college educations.
In the military, one of the largest employers of African Americans, affirmative action and other policies produced one of the most racially equitable workplaces in the nation—indeed, the only one in which whites routinely have black supervisors.
The Congressional Black Caucus was only the best-publicized and most influential of these. Created in by Shirley Chisholm D-NY, and others, it joined together a new critical mass of African American representatives as it enabled them to speak with a common voice on issues of concern to their constituents.
After the s the civil rights movement confronted new issues and forged new alliances. The new stage of struggle also saw more active coalition-building with other groups affected by discrimination and inequality. Blacks and Jews had worked together in the early postwar decades to secure anti-discrimination measures.
AfterBlacks and Latinos and Asian Americans sometimes joined together in campaigns for substantive equal treatment and better life chances.
Black and Puerto Rican activists built coalitions with white feminists to end the practice of sterilization abuse, which targeted women of color, and to seek a broad range of reproductive rights, including quality child care and maternal and child health care.
Poor black women in the welfare rights movement, for their part, sometimes found stronger allies among liberal white women and progressive Catholics than among mainstream male-led civil rights groups fearful of being associated with unmarried mothers seeking better public assistance.
Even with the legislative victories of the s, many obstacles to equality remained, especially in employment and housing. Still, efforts to promote equity and inclusion throughout American society faced daunting road blocks, and it was clear as early as the mids that they would not be removed easily.
Two and a half centuries of slavery and another hundred years of pervasive discrimination had left deep imprints on all American institutions. Every industry that employed African Americans had developed its own variant of entrenched occupational segregation. The housing markets of every major metropolitan area bore the marks of decades of restrictive covenants and real estate red-lining, and of postwar white flight to homogenous suburbs.
School systems, honoring those dividing lines and funded by unequal property taxes, systematically underserved black children.
In the North as well as the South, they left black youth ill-prepared for an emerging labor market that demanded ever-higher levels of education to achieve economic security.
Rather, as the mechanization of southern cotton picking and demise of sharecropping led millions of migrants to head to the cities of the North and West from the s through the s, hopes of good jobs met the reality of vast structural unemployment due to automation and later de-industrialization, and declining urban tax bases due to suburbanization.
Economic equality lagged behind social and political equality, especially in the nation's cities.Essays In Kannada Language Language Essay PSY/ Introduction Language is universal way to express how a person feels So of course, it is essential in cultures to express their individuality within life.
Most of the time people do not put a lot of speculation on . The civil rights movement did not end in It shifted to a new regardbouddhiste.com long official story line of the civil rights movement runs from Montgomery to Memphis, from the bus boycott that introduced Dr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
() to the nation, to the final struggle where an. These essays are not intended to replace library research.
They are here to show you what others think about a given subject, and to perhaps spark an interest or an idea in you. These one-act play scripts of comedies and dramas may be used for free by students for in-class performances.
Ticketed performances by arrangement with author. Equality Act - S29 Provision of services, etc (1)A person (a “service-provider”) concerned with the provision of a service to the public or a section of the public (for payment or not) must not discriminate against a person requiring the service by not providing the person with the service.
We are NOT "sovereign citizens" or any other convenient stereotype or label a corrupt government uses to slander those whistleblowers such as us who insist on a law.