Quantitative Methodologies One key aspect of research is measurement. If we want to know if Dutch men are taller than Chinese men, then we can measure them and find out. One tradition within social science research is to measure things.
Related Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to explain in detail the research methods and the methodology implemented for this study. The chapter will explain first of all the choice of research approach, then the research design, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the research tools chosen.
This will be followed by a discussion on their ability to produce valid results, meeting the aims and objectives set by this dissertation. The chapter then goes on to discuss the sample size and the sampling strategy applied by the author, and the data analysis methods which have been used.
It concludes with a brief discussion on the ethical considerations and limitations posed by the research methodology, as well as problems encountered during the research. Research Approach This dissertation makes use of qualitative research strategy, where the research approach implemented has been that of interpretivism.
Willis defines interpretivism as an approach which is implemented by the researcher in order to synthesize facts which are derived mainly from secondary sources, and which are qualitative in nature.
He also observes that one characteristics of interpretivism is that these facts are abstract in nature, and governed by a variety of factors which are non-tangible and difficult to measure.
These can be economic, social, or cultural factors. These are all elements, which are not easily quantifiable measureableand between which different and complex connections were found to exist, therefore interpretivism was found to be most applicable.
Research Design This research makes use of a qualitative research strategy in the sense that there will be no numeric data or quantitative data was produced Bell, ; Sarantakos, ; Silverman, A qualitative research strategy is particularly applicable for the purposes of this research, where the connection between several different variables had to be established through interpretation.
Also, the research makes use of triangulation because triangulation gives the opportunity to approach the research objectives from different viewpoints Cohen and Manion, ; Altrichter et.
For this study, triangulation was very useful because the researcher aimed to find the intersection between two very different variables belonging to very distinct industries — the arts performing arts in particular and business. This necessitated questionnaires and interviews with the employees who have been recipients of the management with performing art model and with their managers as well.
The validity and the advantages and disadvantages of the tools used to implement the research strategy will be discussed next. Research Methods For the purposes of this research, the writer has decided to use a combination of two of the classic social sciences research tools — questionnaires and interviews Winchester, ; Sarantakos, ; Silverman, ; Greenfield, The questionnaires will be distributed among managers from several companies which have used art elements as part of their management techniques, as well as among carefully selected employees of the same companies, who form part of the team of the same managers.
As a complementary method, the writer conducted interviews with an equal number of representatives of each group. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed below.
Questionnaires Questionnaires were chosen for this research because they are a reliable and quick method to collect information from multiple respondents in an efficient and timely manner.
This is especially important when it comes to large projects, with several complex objectives, where time is one of the major constraints Greenfield, ; Silverman, ; Bell, This study was no exception and questionnaires were a quick and effective way for the researcher to reach multiple respondents within several weeks.
A general disadvantage of the questionnaires however is their fixed and strict format, which eliminates the possibility for more in-depth or abstract observation Bell, ; Sarantakos, Again, this study was not an exception from this rule, as the questionnaires provided linear and clear results, but many elements from the research were left uncovered.
Interviews In order to cover more abstract aspects of the research, the author chose as a complementary method structured interviews consisting of several questions, which were distributed among representatives of each participant group. Interviews are often used as complementary research method in the social sciences, because they give the opportunity for a more in-depth, open discussion, and more informal, free interaction between the interviewer and the interviewee Potter, ; Winchester, ; Sarantakos, Of course the results from the interviews are not generalizable, because of the subjectivity of data obtained.
On the other hand, their flexible format contributed for a deeper explanation and understanding of the connection between performing art and business performance, and if the researcher could have done the dissertation again, this would probably be chosen as the primary, not the secondary research method.
Other methods Upon embarking on this research, the author initially considered focus groups and participant observation as possible research methods, due to the behavioural elements contained in this research.
However, because of time constraints and cost, these research methods were not opted for. Initially the researcher also considered researching two groups of employees by comparison — one coming from an organisation where the performance management model is used, and another one, where this model is not used.
They would be both given the same questionnaire.
This approach was overruled however, because it does not reflect the interactive nature of the model being studied in which managers and business leaders play crucial role. Sampling Strategy For the purposes of this study, the writer had to examine two separate groups of participants.This chapter discussed the research methodology of the study and described the research design, population, sample, data-collection instrument and ethical .
Quantitative research is “explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analysed using mathematically based methods (in particular statistics).
Qualitative research seeks to answer questions about why and how people behave in the way that they do. Quantitative methodologies include experiments, observation and structured interviews.
Although there are others, these three are those you are most likely to employ in a quantitative dissertation, so we will focus upon them here. In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques.
The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories, and hypotheses pertaining to phenomena.
Such qualitative research method example can serve as the basis to indulge in further quantitative research, which provides remedies.
Qualitative Research Methods Vs Quantitative Research Methods The basic differences of qualitative research methods . Writing Chapter 3 Chapter 3: Methodology (Quantitative) Components of Chapter 3 •Participants •Instruments •Procedures Design •Data Analysis •Limitations.
Example Quantitative Research Question What is the relationship between stress and achievement? Design.