View Large Interviews Data were collected using a brief structured questionnaire on smoking behaviour, dependence and motivation to quit, and a longer semi-structured interview.
Advanced Search Abstract Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited.
The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns, — A focus was on reviewing evaluation designs, theory used, formative evaluation, campaign effects and outcomes.
Literature was searched resulting in 18 individual adult mass media campaigns, mostly in high-income regions and two in middle-income regions. One half used formative research. Seven campaigns reported significant increases in physical activity levels.
The review found that beyond awareness raising, changes in other outcomes were measured, assessed but reported in varying ways. It highlighted improvements in evaluation, although limited evidence of campaign effects remain.
It provides an update on the evaluation methodologies used in the adult literature. Background Insufficient physical activity remains an important public health issue contributing to a range of chronic diseases [ 1—3 ]. One component of a comprehensive approach to promoting participation in regular physical activity is to raise community awareness about regular moderate-intensity physical activity using mass media communication campaigns [ 4—7 ].
These campaigns focus on population-wide reach usually using the mass-reach communication channels of television, radio and print media [ 36 ]. Mass media campaigns aim to raise community awareness, inform and change attitudes towards being active, and ultimately, to influence physical activity behaviour [ 389 ].
Mass media can be used to communicate many and varied physical activity-related messages to large audiences or to targeted segments of the community. Historically, mass media efforts aimed at physical activity date back to the early s, when ParticiPACTION was launched in Canada; this overarching campaign and brand ran for 30 years [ 10 ].
Similar campaigns, although not on this scale, have been run in the United States, New Zealand and elsewhere with a significant increase in this field during the s.
Marcus [ 11 ] reviewed the literature on media interventions published between and inclusive. Their results showed that although audience recall of mass media messages generally was high, there was little demonstrated impact on physical activity behaviour [ 11 ].
A later, more comprehensive review, covered campaigns published between and This review also reported high levels of campaign awareness, but again few studies reported any population level increases in physical activity [ 5 ].
Cavill and Bauman [ 5 ] critiqued the evaluation methods being applied and concluded there was a need for improved campaign evaluations using reliable and valid physical activity measures [ 5 ]. Furthermore, they recommended that efforts should be continued to develop and use valid and reliable measures of physical activity [ 12 ].
This limited evidence base on effectiveness for physical activity contrasts with the stronger evidence showing that mass media campaigns have been effective in addressing other lifestyle behaviours, notably tobacco and alcohol use, and sun protection [ 913—17 ].
Given the recent resurgence in interest and investment in physical activity mass media campaigns in Australia and internationally, it is timely to review the evidence and specifically assess if stronger evaluation methods are being used, and do these suggest greater campaign effectiveness.
Using this set of criteria, the aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review of the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns from to and to assess progress and quality of i campaign evaluation design and sampling, ii use of theory and formative research in campaign development and iii evidence of campaign effects including proximal, intermediate and behavioural outcomes.Begin assisting her ventilations with a bag-mask device and assess her pulse rate.
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